The basic components of CNC machine tools include machining program carriers, numerical control devices, servo drives, machine tool bodies and other auxiliary devices. The basic working principle of each component is outlined below.
Processing program carrier
When the CNC machine is working, it is not necessary for the worker to directly operate the machine tool. To control the CNC machine tool, the machining program must be programmed. The part processing program includes the relative motion trajectory of the tool and the workpiece on the machine tool, the process parameters (feedrate spindle speed, etc.) and auxiliary motion. The part processing program is stored in a program carrier, such as a punched paper tape, a cassette tape, a floppy disk, etc., with a certain format and code, and the program information is input to the CNC unit through the input device of the numerical control machine tool.
Numerical control device
The numerical control device is the core of the CNC machine tool. Modern numerical control devices are all in the form of CNC (Computer Numerical Control). This CNC device generally uses multiple microprocessors to implement numerical control functions in the form of programmed software. Therefore, it is also called Software NC. The CNC system is a position control system that interpolates the ideal motion trajectory based on the input data and outputs it to the parts required to machine the actuator. Therefore, the numerical control device mainly consists of three basic parts: input, processing and output. All of this work is reasonably organized by the computer's system program, allowing the entire system to work in harmony.